Note: This post presumes that you know what brachot are and are familiar with how they are used. The brachot are very complicated, in my opinion. At the most basic, remember that there are before-blessings (brachot rishonot) and after-blessings (berachot achronot).
Berachas Rishona: In a beit din setting, be prepared to recite these from memory.
Netilat / Netilas Yadayim: ("YaDIEim") The blessing after ritually washing your hands, either for purity sake or before eating bread. Which washings have a bracha and which don't is beyond the scope of this post.
HaMotzi or Motzi: The blessing before eating bread. It seems that the blessing is usually called "HaMotzi," but people will "make motzi."
Hagafen: (HaGAfen or HaGEfen) The bracha before drinking wine or other grape juices.
Mezonot / Mezonos: The blessing before eating foods made of grains that didn't end up being bread.
HaEitz: The bracha rishona for fruits of trees.
Ha'Adamah: The bracha rishona for fruits and vegetables from the ground. Theoretically, it can also encompass foods that use "boray pri ha'eitz," but that is not ideal.
Shehakol: The "catch-all" bracha rishona. Technically, but not ideally, shehakol can encompass any food.
Brachas Achronos: The beit din will generally not require any of the berachos achronos to be memorized except for boray nefashos.
Bentching or Birkat / Birkas HaMazon: The very long (group) prayer after eating bread.
Al HaMichyah: The after-blessing after eating mezonos items.
Al HaGafen: The beracha achrona after drinking wine or grape juice.
Al HaEtz: The bracha achrona after eating one of the five fruits of the seven species of the Land of Israel: olives, dates, grapes, figs, and pomegranates.
Borei Nefashot / Nefashos: The catch-all after blessing used for everything else. Its use can be complicated, so be aware of that.
I apologize for all the random transliterations, but you never know how people will Google these things, even incorrectly.